A pulpectomy is an endodontic procedure that involves the complete removal of all pulp tissue from the root canal of a tooth. An endodontist might perform a pulpectomy when tooth decay has progressed into the pulp of the tooth, leading to infection or inflammation that has extended to the roots. The goal of this treatment is to relieve pain, prevent the spread of infection, and to save the tooth, which would subsequently be sealed and often restored with a crown for long-term protection and functionality.